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Variables

Programming is above all giving orders to our computer so that it achieves what we want. These orders will allow

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The 3 Best Overall Landscaping Software

Landscaping is a major nightmare for most people. Other people view it as an opportunity to hope for the best. It’s a wonderful opportunity to have the garden you’ve dreamed of and to breathe life into all your creative ideas. With landscaping software, the process of decorating is simplified. It eliminates the guesswork with your contractor when you aren’t sure what you’re looking for or when you can’t explain exactly what your imagination is visualizing.

How To Choose

There is a wide range of options from which to select when it comes to Do-It-Yourself design software. Deciding which one is best for you, however, can be a little difficult. Consider the following when making your purchase.

Read Reviews

It may seem obvious, however it’s very important for all when making any purchases. Feedback from users can provide you with a perspective on a product that may not be in the prominent position in the description from the manufacturer. Stuff like ease of use, compatibility with your current technologies, cost-to-value comparisons, etc., are just a few of the things you can look for in a product review.

Establish Your Budget

Naturally, your financial considerations play a key role in the overall choice of software. Whether you want to use it more than once, or perhaps you have a series of large landscaping projects on the horizon, wait until your current budget allows for a more extensive program. Particularly if you are planning to launch a business like Cincinnati landscaping company.

But if you simply need something that can be utilized quickly and conveniently for a one-time project, then your budget must take into consideration one of the available options for the low to mid range.

Top 3 Best Landscaping Software

Over the course of the following sections, we will present to you some of the highest performing landscaping software that we have encountered in our jobs. Take special care with those that are Windows compatible and those that are Mac compatible.

Chief Architect Premier Professional Home Design Software

  • Windows 64-bit 10/8/7
  • Mac OS Sierra, High Sierra, Mojave
  • 3D mode

For starters, we have to say that this isn’t your average landscaping software. Rather, it is the most comprehensive and feature-rich tool for design professionals seeking interior and exterior design software. Owing to its low price, the software is also available for rental at a portion of the cost of purchasing a full license on a permanent basis.

It features extensive design and detail modelling tools that allow the user to view the entire layout from any angle. The software has CAD tools for both architects and project designers that enable you to accurately and comprehensively design the entire project. Through the use of 3D virtual tours, both professionals and their customers benefit from a precise and detailed visual overview of their projects’ progress to date. The terrain modelling utilities are used to depict the project with the highest possible accuracy.

Pros:

  • Virtual 3D tools
  • 4000 plant library
  • Customizable deck planning
  • Manual and automatic construction tools
  • CAD

Cons:

  • Pricy
  • Steep learning curve

 

Premier Professional Home Design is without a question a program for the professionals. Whilst homeowners can still use it, however, the software is feature-rich and fairly sophisticated, and is time-consuming to learn and master. For this reason, it is wise to trust it in the capable hands of the professionals.

Punch! Home & Landscape Design Premium

  • Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Windows 8, Windows 10, Windows 7
  • Mac
  • 3D mode

For the ultimate do-it-yourselfer with the desire to help out with all aspects of landscaping, then you’ll love all the features of the Punch! Home & Landscape Design Premium has to offer. One caveat: this software is well balanced for both landscaping and interior design. This means that you can be sure not to get overwhelmed with the numerous detailed functionality. With approximately 4,000 different plant choices to pick from, there’s definitely a tremendous amount to accomplish here.

Plus, there’s a diverse array of designs, and that’ s great news for those who are looking for something more inspiring. Just be ready to invest some serious effort in learning more about each function, and be prepared to spend some time learning what each one does, as the UI is not that user-friendly. You can watch a lot of tutorial videos at the developer’s site provided that you have all the patience in the world. Of course, the icons are very helpful and easy-to-remember, which is definitely a bonus. You can find out all the important visualization modes in the tutorial book: air, 2D, 3D and a virtual visualization process.

Pros:

  • 4000 plants.
  • Ideal for landscaping and interior design.
  • Visualization modes are varied
  • Tutorials and guides can be found on the developer’s website.

Cons:

  • No search function.
  • Steep learning curve.

 

The software is intended for those who are looking for a complete solution for landscaping and interior design and who are not hesitant to spend the time learning the available tools and features of this software.

Virtual Architect Home & Landscape Platinum Suite 8.0

  • Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista
  • 3D mode

If you are looking for a solid UI that can help you with your landscaping and design needs, the Platinum Suite is an awesome software. And the best thing is that you will not have to invest a lot of time learning because it teaches you all that you need to learn as you go along. You will find specific steps and guidelines that will show you what each process means and show you where you need to go to move ahead. There is a “Tutor” box which appears whenever you click on a particular new tool which helps you learn what it is all about.

It’ s very easy to use the drag and drop feature and allows you to rapidly edit your plan. You can also use the photo upload feature so you can practice whilst you do your thing. You simply drag and drop the appropriate elements straight into your current layout to achieve a better visualization of what the end-results would look like. Both 2D and 3D modes are available with convenient drag-and-drop functionality built into both. Alternatively, you can use a viewing mode that enables you to visualize what the landscape looks like in varying time of year.

Not being the most comprehensive and powerful software of its type, the realism offered by competing software in the landscape category is not to be anticipated. Nonetheless, there are over 7,500 objects in the object library, more than enough for you to be able to tinker around with different plants, shrubs, and other vegetation elements. On top of that, you can even visualize how your landscape is going to be like in 20 years’ time with the growth of plants and vegetation.

Pros:

  • Step-by-step detailed instructions.
  • Very helpful tutor tool.
  • You can upload photos.
  • Landscape view with seasonal changes.

Cons:

  • Graphic details remain to be desired when compared to other high-end software.

Virtual Architect Home & Landscape Platinum Suite provides an ideal application for those who are not yet familiar with this kind of software and who would benefit from step-by-step, progressive instruction all through the designing process.

Conclusion

Luckily, the software market has grown considerably, so we now have a wide range of landscaping software. Considering that we do not believe in the concept of “the best”, we prefer to focus on the “best for”. For this reason, we believe that the most versatile, expensive and feature-rich software may not be the best choice for every one of our readers. It is important to determine how much you want to be involved in your next landscaping project, but also how often you plan to renovate from now on.

If you want to be able to design the landscape of your dreams down to the finest detail and don’t mind spending a lot of money, you should certainly focus on the more extensive options in this test. They give you the opportunity to play with a very large collection of plants and garden items, and even include complex preview modes such as 3D tours or seasonal landscapes.

5 Myths About Learning Programming

You want to start your career as a programmer, but you don’t know where to start or even if you’re just going to succeed one day. If you think that programming learning is reserved for a handful of elite/gifted/mathematicians, you’re wrong!

Programming has become one of the most sought-after and important qualities of this century. Together we’ll see 5 popular myths about learning programming.

I have to be good at math to be good at programming

No. And even though I’m not a programmer as such in my trade, I’m pretty well placed to say I’ve done a master’s degree in computer science with programming almost every day, whereas I’m very bad at math.

In reality, developers are ordinary people like you and me, who are passionate about programming. They write code, not mathematical formulas. Of course, it depends as often on what you want to do.

Let’s take two very concrete examples: if you want to write algorithms and make a program that does given calculations according to this algorithm (for example, in terms of imaging), yes being good at math is important. Conversely, if you want to do web design or graphical interfaces, chances are you don’t have any mathematical formula to use. So I repeat, it depends on what YOU want to do.

This myth is more general than mathematics, because you don’t need to pass a particular degree or get validation of a particular quality before you start. This point is very important and I often stress on it, because the biggest mistake you make is just waiting for a green light, waiting for a diploma, waiting for an answer to your questions.

Of course, there are qualities necessary, even indispensable to all programmers, these include logic, problem solving and patience. I’m not saying that there is no need for any quality but I say that these qualities are acquired through practice, so don’t wait. Even if you make mistakes (what will happen, and what is normal because it is part of the learning process).

I just have to learn the best programming language

The most typical question for beginners in programming is: “What is the best language to start with?” There is no one-way answer to this question. It all depends on what YOU want to do, and I will repeat it often. You have to go from there.

There is no better programming language, but simply languages more suited to a particular task. And I would say even more suited to a particular individual, because often several programming languages are usable for the same task, so it’s up to you to choose according to YOUR feeling and YOUR desires. And to do this, we must test, practice, we fall back on the conclusion of the first point.

To take an example, if you want to learn how to create a website, you’re going to have to turn to web languages (HTML, CSS, JavaScript… etc.) If you want to learn how to program to interact with your operating system, you’ll instead learn a “low-level” language like C. Even if there are several alternatives for the same tasks, then it is up to you to choose, either by chance or according to your preferences after testing one or the other. And the truth is, it’s once again with practice and experience that you’ll know which language is best for your profile and tasks.

Another great way to choose a language is to go on an open source project that is close to your heart. I take the example of WordPress, the most popular content management system that is programmed in PHP, JS, HTML… Etc. This one offers you tutorials to write plugins: you program something in a standardized way, with specific languages and methods, plus you directly apply your knowledge in a concrete project. This example is not necessarily suitable for all readers, but more generally you have many open source projects that can inspire you in various programming languages here or there.

I have to memorize the syntax and avoid seeking help

Beginners often think that by programming something from A to Z, without outside help, they will memorize the language better. Even if it’s probably fair, it’s a waste of time and energy. Because you can learn faster and better, faster. In programming, not only do you avoid reinventing the wheel, but you will also have memorized it through practice, you will memorize the same code dozens of times, and in a sustainable way, because you will have memorized it through practice!

The integrated development environments were not created for fun (or for noobs), they are there to facilitate the programmer’s task, generating code for him and assisting him in his code writing (syntax recommendation… etc.)

Do you have a problem? Try to solve it quickly, otherwise go directly to Google to find the solution. Then write down the code and memorize it so you don’t have to search for the solution. Congratulations, you optimized your memorization method.

Once you feel comfortable, you can test yourself with new code.

I can’t write that much code

If you’re scared when you come across a 5,000-line source code, be aware that a programmer often sees (and programs) such source codes.

The ideal is to stay organized in your code writing, to avoid getting lost. Separating software tasks from different source files is also part of good programming practices.

And when you’re inspired, you’ll see that writing 10,000 lines of code was actually nothing special. But that won’t stop you from being proud of it!

Learning programming takes only a few weeks (or months)

You may spend a few weeks learning programming, but you’ll take years to master it (hence the need not to wait for an event to get started). Programming is like drawing, at first we are rather bad, we imitate others and we try on our side. Then as the experience accumulates, you become autonomous and perfect. Passion and patience are the order of the day.

So start now, and thank your self for the past in a year.m. Don’t forget to step by step. Knowing that mastering programming will take any time, you don’t have to rush to learn everything at once. On the contrary, do not rest too much in passing that everything will be done with time, because at that time you are no longer passionate about programming …

Perseverance, patience, motivation, action! Your task can of course be greatly facilitated by using a guide that puts you on the right path and saves you from wasting time making mistakes already made 1000 times.

3 Easy Steps to Start Programming

Are you new to programming and just can’t decide if this is the right path for you? You want to learn how to program but don’t know where to start? Then this article is for you.

Here are the 3 steps to follow to start great in learning how to program. That is, how to choose the right programming language and how to learn efficiently by using the best practices.

#1 Find areas you like

This is the most important part since you need to seriously ask yourself the question:

What’s in it for me? Why do I like to learn programming?

You need to jot down at least 3 good reasons that best answers the question. Don’t stop until you have completed the 3 answers.

Why would you do that? This is because anybody is more motivated when they are doing what they like most. This is one of the best learning methods out there and thus a great way to start learning programming.

Being able to do what we like allows us to learn efficiently and effectively.

It’s done? Have you noted the three reasons for learning programming?

These are the reasons that will guide you all over the journey to know where you need to start. You can just choose whatever you like, however, make sure that at this stage these are the areas you like the most.

To make you understand me, I’ll do the step at the same time as you with an example, here are my 3 reasons.

I want to learn programming to:

  1. Be able to make my own software
  2. Understand systems better
  3. Website Creation

#2 Add details to these areas

If you want to learn programming because it sounds cool or fashionable, you won’t know, what to do next. I’m not saying it’s useless to learn to program just because it’s “fashionable” but you have to realize your wishes during this 2nd stage.

Now you need to specify each of the previously established reasons. Take them one by one and add details. This includes the time you want to spend on training and operating systems.

Here’s for my example:

  1. Software Creation – Be able to make a utility software for Windows that may be used for disinfection, cleaning, or even for antivirus.
  2. Understand the systems well – Be able to understand how operating systems like Windows, Mac or Linux work and how to utilize them on the programming side.
  3. Creating websites – Being able to develop and create my own websites that are functional and responsive.

Note: Your reasons may initially be broad as “introduce me to computer science” but you need to specify them as much as possible. If your details are numerous, do not write a whole paragraph but find the most important for you until you have something concrete to start with, as in my example.

#3 Select which programming language you want to learn first

Now that you know why you want to start programming, as well as the time allotted and the system involved, you’ll get much easier the language or languages you need to learn first.

Here is an example:

  • If I want to make a good Windows utility software, the “dotnet” (.NET) languages, i.e. Visual C, C, VB.NET will be my target to learn first.

To come to this conclusion, you only need to do a quick search such as “windows programming” or “programming language for Windows.” We also learn that Java or even Python languages (non-exhaustive list) can also be used regardless of the operating system. Dotnet languages are simply more appropriate. And this is because they are created by Microsoft itself, the publisher of Windows.

Variables

Programming is above all giving orders to our computer so that it achieves what we want. These orders will allow our computer to manipulate information in various forms (numbers, texts, videos, etc.). At this point, we know that these orders, these instructions are executed by our processor. However, we still do not know how to give orders, or how to handle information.

This chapter will explain how to manipulate the simplest types of data in the C language, numbers and letters (or characters), using so-called variables. After this one, you will be able to enjoy your computer as if it were a big calculator. Nevertheless, rest assured, the math level of this chapter will be quite low: if you know how to count, you can easily understand it!

It may sound a bit silly and not very interesting, but you have to start with the basics. Manipulating text or video is complex and requires knowledge of how to manipulate numbers. Yes, I did. As you will see, everything is a number for our computer, even text and video.

What Is A Variable?

To understand what a variable is and how to manipulate it, you have to start by understanding how our computer stores data. In theory, a computer is capable of storing any type of information. But how is it possible to achieve such a miracle when it is ultimately only a cluster of electrical circuits?

Encoding information

You may have heard the saying: “If the only tool you have is a hammer, you will see any problem as a nail” (Abraham Maslow). Well, the idea is a bit the same for a computer: the computer only knows how to use numbers, he sees all information as a series of numbers.

The trick is to turn information into numbers so that the computer can process it, in other words to digitize it. Different techniques are possible to achieve this goal, one of the simplest being a matching table, for example between a number and a character

 

Character Number
A 1
B 2
C 3

Binary

However, as if that were not enough, a computer does not count like us: it has base two.

Base two?

The base is the number of numbers available to represent a number. On base 10, we have ten digits: zero, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight and nine. In base two, we have… two: zero and one. In terms of counting, it’s the same: we start by depleting the units: 0, 1; then we move on to the dozens: 10, 11; then to the hundreds: 100, 101, 110, 111; and so on. Below is a small matching table between base two and base ten.

 

Base two Base Ten
0 0
1 1
10 2
11 3
100 4
101 5
110 6
111 7
1000 8
1001 9
1010 10

A binary number (a zero or a one) is called a bit in English. This is the contraction of the term “binary digit.” We will use it quite often in the course for the sake of economy.

But why use base two and not base ten?

Because the data flows in the form of electrical currents. However, since the voltage of these is not always stable, it is difficult to achieve a reliable system that can detect ten different values. On the other hand, it is perfectly possible with two values: there is current or there is none.

Memory

We now know that our computer can only use numbers represented in base two.

But how do you store all this clutter of numbers?

Well, the bits are stored in a particular electronic component of the computer: memory. Finally, we say “memory,” but there are actually several.

But why several memories and not one?

The fact is that it is currently impossible to create memories that are both fast and capable of containing a lot of data. So we can’t use a single large memory that can store all the data we need. This problem has arisen from the very beginning of computer science, as evidenced by this quote from the 1940s, from the designers of one of the very first computers.

But researchers and engineers at the beginning of computing found a solution: segment the computer’s memory into several sub-memories, of different size and speed, each used as needed. So we’ll have memories that can hold little data and fast, alongside larger, slower memories.

We told you that the computer used several memories. Three of them deserve your attention:

  1. Registers are memory built into the processor, used to store temporary data. They are very fast, but can only contain very simple data, such as numbers.
  2. RAM is a slightly larger memory, but slower than registers. It can hold quite a bit of data and is usually used to store programs running and the data they manipulate.
  3. These two memories (registers and RAM) still have a slight flaw: they lose their contents when they are no longer fed. Suffice to say that this is not the best place to store an operating system or personal files. This is the role of the hard drive, a memory with a very large capacity, but very slow which has the advantage of ensuring the persistence of the data.

Bits, multiplets and bytes

In RAM, the bits are grouped into fixed-quantity “packages”: “memory boxes,” also known as multiplets. With a few exceptions, memories use eight-bit multiplets, also known as bytes. A byte can store 256 different information (you can do the calculation yourself: how much is 111111111 in base two?). To store more information, it will be necessary to use several bytes.

Memory address

Nevertheless, it is all very well to store data in memory, but it is necessary to be able to get your hands on it.

With this in mind, each multiplet of the RAM is assigned a unique number, an address, which will allow it to select and identify it among all the others. Imagine the computer’s RAM as a huge cabinet, which would contain many drawers (memory boxes) that can each hold a multiplet. Each drawer is assigned a number to recognize it among all the others. We could ask what is in drawer number 27. For memory, it’s the same. Each memory box has a number: its address.

 

Address Memory Content
0 11101010
1 01111111
2 00000000
3 01010101
4 10101010
5 00000000

In fact, you can compare an address to a phone number: each of your correspondents has a phone number and you know that to call a particular person, you have to dial that number. Memory addresses work exactly the same way!

More generally, all memories have a similar mechanism for finding the data. Also, you will often hear the term reference for a means (such as an address) to locate a data. It is simply a more general concept.

So What is a Variable?

All this is very nice, but explicitly manipulating references (addresses if you prefer) is a real ordeal, as is trying to calculate on base two. Fortunately for us, programming languages (especially C) are responsible for converting for us and replacing references with variables.

A variable will correspond to a portion of memory, called an object, to which we will give a name. This name will identify our variable, just as a reference can identify one portion of memory among all the others. This will allow us to name the data we manipulate, each of which is replaced when compiling by a reference (usually an address).

Introduction to Programming

Programming is a subject that fascinates a lot. If you are reading this course, you have decided to take the plunge and find out what it is all about. However, before you start learning anything about programming, it is necessary to first find out what programming is all about. For the moment, you don’t really know what programming is, what “programming” means, or what characterizes a programming language.

What is programming?

Programming is a branch of computer science that is used to create programs. Everything you own on your computer is a program: your Internet browser (Internet Explorer, Firefox, Opera, etc.), your operating system (Windows, GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, etc.) which is a grouping of several programs called software, your MP3 player, your instant chat software, your video games, etc.

The Program Explained

A program is a sequence of instructions, orders, given to the computer to perform actions. These instructions are usually fairly basic. We find instructions for addition, multiplication, or other basic mathematical operations, which make our computer a real machine to calculate. Other more complex instructions may exist, such as operations to compare values, process characters, etc.

Creating a program is simply using a basic set of instructions that will allow you to do what you want. All programs are created this way: your MP3 player gives instructions to the computer to listen to music, the chat gives instructions to chat with other people on the network, the operating system gives instructions to tell the computer how to use the hardware, etc.

Note that it is not possible to create instructions. These are printed in the computer’s circuits so that it can only handle a specific number and therefore it is not open to you to build new ones (except in real cases).

Our computer contains a particular electronic component, specially designed to execute these instructions: the processor. The important thing to remember is that our computer contains a circuit, the processor, which allows for small basic treatments called instructions and which are the basis of everything found on a computer.

The instructions are stored in our computer in the form of binary numbers (called bits in English), in other words in the form of zeros or ones. Thus, our instructions are nothing but suites of zeros and ones kept in our computer and that our processor will interpret as orders to be executed. These suites of zeros and ones are difficult to understand for us humans, and talking to the computer with zeros and ones is very tedious and very long. Suffice to say that creating programs this way is like shooting yourself in the foot.

To give you an example, imagine that you had to communicate with a stranger when you do not know his language. Communicating with a computer would mean having to give it a sequence of zeros and some, the latter being unable to understand anything else. This language is called machine language.

One question must certainly come to mind: how do you communicate with our processor without having to learn its language?

The ideal would be to talk to our processor in French, English, etc., but let’s be clear: our technology is not advanced enough and we had to find something else. The solution chosen was to create programming languages that are more advanced than machine language, easier to learn and to provide the translator who goes with it. These are fairly simplified languages, often close to natural languages and in which we can write our programs much more simply than using machine language. Thanks to them, it is possible to write our programs in text form, without having to deal with sequels of zeros and some totally incomprehensible. There are many programming languages and one of them is C.

However, our processor does not understand these advanced languages and knows only one: his. Also, to use a programming language, you need a translator who will link it to the processor’s machine language. This way, you no longer need to know the language of your processor. In computer science, this translator is called a compiler.

Ready to learn programming now?

The C Language

Despite all these programming languages available we will focus on only one of them: the C. Before we talk about the characteristics of this language and the choices that lead us to study it in this course, let’s make a little history.

The History of the C

The C language was born in the early 1970s in the laboratories of the company AT&T in the United States. Its designer, Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie, wanted to improve an existing language, the B, in order to add new features to it. By 1973, the C was practically developed and began to be distributed the following year. Its success was such with computer scientists that in 1989, ANSI, and then in 1990, ISO, decided to standardize it, that is to say to establish international and official rules for this language. Currently, there are four standards: ANSI C89 or ISO C90, ISO C99, ISO C11 and ISO C18.

Why Learn C?

That’s a very good question.

After all, given that there are so many different languages, it is legitimate to ask why choosing the C in particular? There are several reasons for this.

  • Its popularity: C is one of the most widely used programming languages. Since then, a large community has been built around its use, so you will usually always find a person to help you as well as many courses, articles and tickets about it. Another consequence of this popularity is that many programs and libraries have been written in this language and therefore constitute an abundant wealth of codes from which you can draw.
  • Its minimalism: the C was built as a simple and minimalist language, especially in order to facilitate the development of compilers (even today, when new processor architectures appear, the C language is often the first usable language after the Assembler). This minimalism results in a reduced number of concepts and/or abstractions that also allow us to go around the language relatively quickly.
  • Its performance: C minimalism allows compilers to generally produce high-performance executables with a low memory footprint (which is especially valuable when the speed of execution is crucial and/or the amount of memory very limited).
  • Portability: In general, a C-developed program can work on a large number of different machines without the code having to be changed, the only condition being to have a compiler for each type of machine. However, because the development of C compilers is relatively simple, there are a large number of them for a large number of architectures, making C a portable language (from machine to machine).

These are just a few reasons, but they are to our liking sufficient to justify learning this language. Of course, the C also has its share of defects. One example is the tolerance of dangerous behaviours, which makes C require rigour in order not to fall into certain “traps”, a smaller number of concepts (sometimes a disadvantage, because one is then obliged to recode certain mechanisms that exist natively in other languages), etc. Moreover, if your goal is to quickly develop fun programs, know that the C is not suitable for this and that we advise you, in this case, to turn to other languages, such as Python or Ruby.

The C also has a feature that is both an advantage and a defect: it is a so-called “low level” language. This means that it allows you to program by being “close to your machine”, that is, without hiding too much of its inner workings. This property is double-edged: on the one hand it makes learning more difficult and increases the risk of errors or dangerous behaviors, but on the other it leaves you with a great freedom of action and allows you to learn more about how your machine works. This notion of “low level” is also to oppose the so-called “high level” languages that allow to program without a number of things. Development is made easier and faster, but in return, many internal mechanisms are hidden and not accessible to the programmer. However, these high- and low-level notions need to be nuanced, as they depend on the language used and the programmer’s point of view (for example, compared to machine language, C is a high-level language).

A quick note to finish: maybe you’ve heard of the C? It is a programming language that was invented in the 1980s by Bjarne Stroustrup, a colleague of Dennis Ritchie, who wanted to add elements to the C. Although it was very close to the C at the time of its creation, the C is today a very different language from the C and has almost no relation to it (if not a certain proximity at the level of a part of its syntax). This is even more true when it comes to how to program and reason that are radically different.

Do not believe, however, as their name or date of creation may suggest, that there is one language better than the other, they are simply different. If your goal is to learn C, we encourage you to do so. In fact, contrary to what is often said or read, there is no need to know the C to learn the C.

The rules

As noted above, C is a language that has been standardized three times. These standards serve as a reference for all programmers and help them whenever they have a doubt or a language-related question. Of course, they are not perfect and do not answer all the questions, but they remain the reference for any programmer.

These standards are also essential for compilers. Indeed, the compliance of these standards by the various compilers allows that there are no differences in interpretation of the same code. Finally, these standards are the equivalent of our spelling, grammar and conjugation rules. Imagine if everyone wrote or conjugated as they pleased, it would be quite a mess…